Today, Fairphone announced it is adding conflict-free tungsten from Rwanda into its supply chain. With this achievement, Fairphone has successfully managed to transparently source all four of the conflict minerals (tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold).
Fairphone began in 2010 as a campaign to increase awareness for the use of conflict minerals in consumer electronics. Six years later, the social enterprise has released two smartphones and more than 100,000 Fairphone owners have joined the movement, but this cause is more relevant than ever.
Most consumers still lack information about how their products are made, including where the materials come from and how they are sourced. A smartphone, for example, contains about 40 different minerals, which come from every corner of the globe. The starting point of the mineral supply chain – the mining sector – is often fraught with environmental and human rights abuses ranging from pollution and dangerous working conditions to child labor.
Finding a way to responsibly source minerals from conflict regions
While the Dodd-Frank Act put a spotlight on the issue of conflict minerals, there were also unintended consequences in the countries where these minerals are mined. To avoid being associated with the harmful mining practices in the DRC and African Great Lakes region, most electronics manufacturers stopped sourcing from the region entirely, delivering another economic blow to local residents.
In 2013, in order to better understand and uncover issues related to electronics manufacturing, Fairphone began producing its first smartphone. The company focused on a range of projects to improve social and environmental aspects across its entire supply chain, including conflict minerals. Fairphone wanted to find a way to source traceable, conflict-free minerals directly from countries like the DRC to improve the mining practices and incomes of the communities most affected by conflict.
By partnering with programs such as the Conflict Free Tin Initiative (CFTI) and Solutions for Hope, Fairphone began sourcing tin and tantalum from validated conflict-free mines in South Kivu and Katanga, DRC for the Fairphone 1. The production of its latest phone, the Fairphone 2, has enabled the company to expand its activities. For example, at the beginning of this year, Fairphone became the first consumer electronics manufacturer to integrate Fairtrade gold into its supply chain.
Tungsten completes Fairphone’s quest to trace all four defined conflict minerals
In parallel to setting up the pilot project for Fairtrade gold, Fairphone has been working closely with Austrian smelter Wolfram Bergbau und Hütten AG to support the reopening of the tungsten trade from Rwanda, and Fairphone has officially made the conflict-free tungsten part of its supply chain. Based on the current production schedule, this tungsten will be present in the Fairphone 2’s vibration mechanism starting from August. With this achievement, Fairphone has successfully managed to transparently source all four of the conflict minerals identified in the Dodd-Frank Act.
Compared to the artisanal tin and tantalum mines in the DRC, the semi-industrial tungsten mine in Rwanda provide clear improvements in working conditions, especially in terms of health and safety. Wolfram Bergbau, who was successfully audited by the Conflict-Free Smelter Program in April 2014 and re-audited in April 2015, has gradually started sourcing tungsten again from Rwanda including the New Bugarama Mining Company in Rwanda. Located in in the north of Rwanda, near the city of Kidao, the mine employs between 700 and 1200 local miners (depending on demand) and is a key source of income for the community.
Showing the rest of the industry what is possible
Fairphone’s motivation for finding transparent sources of conflict minerals extends far beyond its own smartphone. The company wants to pave the way for the rest of the electronics industry to show that traceable mineral sourcing is indeed possible. Fairphone is working to create a different mindset among manufacturers, suppliers and consumers to continue to improve awareness of the issues related to electronics production and increase acceptance of sourcing from high-risk areas in a responsible way.